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Saturday, August 30, 2008

Carbon

The chemical element carbon is a non metal. This atom have a special characteristic and a lot use of this mineral in many application. Different with other non metal characteristic this substance can transfer of electric current. In the normal condition this substance is in solid phase, but after react with other substance become a gas phase or liquid phase such as CO and CO2 for gas state and CS2 in liquid state when the temperature is below 30oC and change to gas when temperature above 30oC.


Carbon is the sixth most abundant element in the universe, carbon plays an essential role in the thermonuclear burning of hydrogen in the hotter stars. On earth, carbon is found both in native form and in compounds with other elements, making up about 0.2% by weight of the Earth's crust. The elements is found in its purest form as diamond and graphite and in less pure form as a constituent of natural coal, coke, and charcoal. Its most abundant compounds are carbon dioxide, with constitutes about 0.05% of the atmosphere and is found dissolved in all natural waters; the carbonat minerals, such as limestone and marble; and the hydrocarbons, which are principle constituents of coal, petroleum and natural gas.


Carbon is the most versatile element known. Only carbon is capable of combining with other elements in arrangements of sufficient variety and complexity to fulfill the essential functions on which life depends. Carbon compounds are continually replenished by photosynthesis in green plants. The exchanged of carbon with the environment ceases when an organism dies, and the amount of the radioactive isotope carbon-1,4 remaining can be used to determine the age of materials of biological origin.


Carbon and its compounds have assumed a position of major influence on the economy, especially in the more industrialized nations. Synthetic fibers and plastics, which are ultimately derived from petroleum based chemicals (petrochemicals), have largely supplanted natural substances. These materials serve as the basis for numerous technological advances, including those in such field as electronics and transportation industries. The development of synthetics drugs has radically affected the practice of medicine. Carbon-based fuels have provided most of the world's energy needs since 1900.


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